[JENNA FORTON] Journaling is everything in my classroom. At Ravenswood, we talk about how writing is learning. And so these learning processes are shown and practiced through writing, the act of writing. Journaling is therefore an integral part of the classroom because it is an integral part of learning. So I ask students to use their notebooks as a space to get involved. And even if they don`t feel confident sharing vocally, or if they don`t want to share vocally, or if they don`t want to or they want to listen, they have the opportunity to engage in the classroom, no matter where they are, because anyone can record something. Thus, journaling can be used at any time to engage during classes. And the specific strategy of fast writing is the idea of not removing your pen or pencil from the paper. And so using singular words, using a poem, using a drawing to express where you are in your thinking, even though that point is, I don`t know what I think, it`s still a place where students can go. Jack, first question, please. [JACK] What does equality mean to you? [JENNA FORTON] Second question. Carlos, go ahead. CARLOS: No.
Does that mean equal treatment before the law, equal opportunity, equality of education or something else? [JENNA FORTON] From what you know about equality, what does that mean? Lot. You have about 10 minutes to work on it, and then I will check. Now, another level in your thinking. Eyes raised here. Going back to the litigation document, how did you make a decision on the case? Did equality play a role in your decision? Even go back to the 14th Amendment itself. Look for the wording, look for the wording, try to find evidence that you can associate with this idea of equality. Turn around and talk. [PARALLEL DISCUSSIONS] [STUDENT 1] Not eagle – legal-extra-legal thing. [STUDENT 2] Yes. [STUDENT 1] Yes.
And it`s also important to distinguish between justice and equality, because justice is like the benefits granted when you`re not – when you`re disadvantaged. But equality is equal treatment and none of these special treatments are granted to help others. It is exactly the same thing. [STUDENT 3] Yes. And even if equality is one thing, for example, there will still be people who will still fight. For example, this poster is a good example because it really shows when people get equality, not – people can get the same treatment, but not everyone will feed on it. [STUDENT 2] Some people need more help than others. [STUDENT 3] Yes, and if we deliver justice, it means we can help more people in need. [STUDENT 2] It`s like at the intersection of identity, where people — we sometimes see well-treated women and black people — black men are sometimes treated the same, but what happens when you cross in the middle? [STUDENT 3] People choose to ignore it because there is no answer.
[STUDENT 2] Yes, we still don`t have enough experience with this group to be able to help them. Therefore, there is no fairness. [STUDENT 1] No, it`s not that there`s no experience. I think it`s more that there`s just no way – no way has been created to see them in their struggle. [JENNA FORTON] It`s something that`s so important in our classroom that students almost settle for — well, let`s get to it. I appreciated that many of them when I gave them things to include in their journal, I was happy to see that as they walked around, they had other questions. I was happy to see that if I leaned over and wanted to talk to a student about what he was writing, he already wanted to verbally discuss something with me. So, again, I think that element was 100% involvement in logging, and I`m always surprised by that. You would just hear that it`s so hard to engage kids 100%, and then you see through the logging that it`s possible and exposes that somehow. The study of formally defined voting methods is called social choice theory or voting theory and can take place in the field of political science, economics or mathematics and especially in the subfields of game theory and mechanism design. Proofs of impossibility such as Arrow`s impossibility theorem show that when voters have three or more alternatives, it is not possible to design a ranked electoral system that reflects the preferences of individuals in a global community preference that exists in proportional and majority representation countries. 1924The Indian Citizenship Act declares all Native Americans to be U.S.
citizens, giving them full right to vote. But some states still prevent Native Americans from voting for decades. In many states, 16-year-olds can drive and find jobs. They have to pay taxes on their income. But what is the one thing that most of them are not allowed to do? Choose. That`s because the 26th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution sets the voting age at 18. (Before the amendment was ratified in 1971, most Americans had to be at least 21 to vote.) 1971Thousands of young Americans die in the Vietnam War, and many Americans argue that if 18-year-olds are old enough to serve in the military, they are old enough to vote. Their efforts culminated in the ratification of the 26th Amendment in 1971, which lowered the voting age from 21 to 18. Single Transferable Vote (WT) is another form of proportional representation; in STV, voters rank candidates in a multi-member constituency instead of voting for a party list; It is used in Malta and the Republic of Ireland. To be elected, candidates must pass a quota (the Droop quota is the most common). Candidates who pass the quota at the first count are elected.
The votes are then redistributed by the least successful candidates, as well as the excess votes by the elected candidates, until all seats are filled by candidates who have exceeded the quota.  Teenagers are interested in politics right now and getting involved – and they deserve to have a say at the ballot box, say proponents of lowering the voting age. Countless young people across the country are participating in protests, contacting lawmakers and sharing their views on social media. The use of game theory to analyze voting systems has led to discoveries about the effects of certain methods. Previous developments such as Arrow`s impossibility theorem had already highlighted problems with ranking voting systems. Research led Steven Brams and Peter Fishburn to formally define and promote the use of consent voting in 1977.  Political scientists of the twentieth century. In the nineteenth century, numerous studies were published on the effects of electoral systems on the choices of voters and parties and on political stability.   Some scholars have also studied the effects that led a nation to switch to a particular electoral system.      An eminent current election theorist is Nicolaus Tideman, who formalized concepts such as strategic appointment and spoiler effect in the criterion of independence from clones. Tideman also developed the ranked pair method, a Condorcet method that is not prone to clones. A global vote is not limited to two rounds, but examines the last candidate in each ballot.
Due to the potentially high number of rounds, this system is not used in a large popular election, but for the election of the presidents of the parliaments of several Länder and members of the Federal Council. In some formats, there can be multiple rounds without eliminating candidates until a candidate wins a majority, a system used in the U.S. Electoral College.