peopleCeNTiLMeN date_rangeAralık 3 2022

The World`s Earliest Known Law Code Was Introduced in

“Laws are organized in the casuistic form of if-(crime), then – (punishment)-a pattern to be followed in almost all subsequent codes. For the oldest known code of laws in history, it is considered remarkably progressive because it provides for fines for bodily injury, in contrast to the later principle of lex talionis (“an eye for an eye”) of Babylonian law; However, the capital crimes of murder, theft, adultery and rape are punishable by death. The stele was packed and shipped to the Louvre in Paris, and in less than a year it was translated and widely published as the first example of a written code of law – one that was older but had striking parallels with the laws of the Hebrew Old Testament. “Although it is known that there were earlier legal texts, such as the Urukagina Codex, it is the oldest legal text. It preceded the Code of Hammurabi by about three centuries. The purpose and legal authority of the Code have been challenged since the mid-20th century. [87] Theories fall into three broad categories: it is legislation, whether it is a code of law or a set of laws; whereas it is a kind of legal report containing files of past cases and judgments; and that it is an abstract work of jurisprudence. Legal theory has found a lot of support within Assyriology. [88] The prologue, typical of Mesopotamian codes of law, refers to the primordial kingship deities of the Nammu, Nanna, and Utu, and decrees “justice in the land.” How long will your-Nammu maintain his place as the world`s leading legislator? Maybe not for much longer. There is evidence that there were legislators in Sumer long before your-Nammu was born.

Sooner or later, a lucky “digger” will find a copy of a code of law that predates your-Nammu`s by a century or more. (55) The Ur-Nammu Codex is the oldest existing code of law. This text was written on clay tablets in the Sumerian language and is believed to have been written towards the end of the 3rd millennium BC. The codex of your-Nammu can be divided into two parts, the first being the prologue and the second being the laws themselves. In addition to being the oldest surviving code of law, the Ur-Nammu codex is also important because it gives us insight into how justice was conceived in ancient Sumerian society. The first known version of the code at its current location, Istanbul. ( Public domain ) As kings were considered the guardians of law and order, they often issued legal reforms, debt discharges and decrees, which were recorded in writing and are often referred to as legal texts, although there is no evidence that the courts ever referred to such edicts. (105) The first code of law of Mesopotamia was the Code of Law of Urukagina (c. 24th century BC), which to this day survives only by mentions in other ancient works. Although the codex of your-Nammu is incomplete, it has retained enough to allow scholars to understand the king`s vision of law and order in his lands. your-Nammu presented himself as the father of his people and encouraged his subjects to see themselves as one family and its laws as the rules of a house. Punishment, with the exception of capital crimes, took the form of fines, just as a child could be deprived of a hobby or favorite toy for bad behavior.

Hammurabi, following the example of your-Nammu, claimed that his laws had been given to him by the god Shamash and had a stele engraved with these laws, crowned by an image of Shamash who had given them to the king, placed in the town square, where anyone who could read had access to them; Those who could not, would have made them read it. Ignorance of the law is therefore no excuse to break it, because the laws have been promulgated publicly and can be consulted at any time. Unlike the your-Nammu code, which might presuppose a general understanding among the population, Hammurabi`s code had to be more explicit – and stricter – and it seems that its code was consulted by the courts. Leick describes the Code and its provisions: [The Hammurabi Code] represents the first known attempt to create a coherent set of abstract legal norms for the whole country, encompassing various local practices and traditional law. There are several main sections (family law, including subsections on adultery, incest, divorce and inheritance; property rights and restitution; credit and rental agreements; and setting standards for fees and wages). It distinguishes fines and penalties according to the legal status of a person: free man, slave and an intermediate category. (106) Although not a true code, it is far from exhaustive; Some say that they were also not introduced by your-Nammu, but by his son Shulgi, code or not, although we only have fragments, they are enough to show that the laws covered both civil and criminal cases. Among the penal provisions, it determines which capital crimes should be: murder, robbery, expulsion of the virgin wife of another man and adultery if committed by a woman. For other offences, the penalty was a monetary fine. [your-Nammus codex stands] contrasts with the more famous laws of Hammurabi, written some three centuries later, with their savage “an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth” disposition. (148-149) The codex was considered the first collection of Mesopotamian law when it was discovered in 1902 – for example, C.

H. W. Johns` 1903 book was entitled The Oldest Code of Laws in the World. [31] The English writer H. G. Wells included Hammurabi in the first volume of The Outline of History, and for Wells too, the codex was “the oldest known code of law.” [33] However, three earlier collections were later discovered: the Lipit-Ishtar Codex in 1947, the Laws of Eshnunna in 1948, and the Code of your-Nammu in 1952. [34] Early commentators dated Hammurabi and the stele to the 23rd century BC. [35] However, this is an estimate that predates what even the “ultra-long chronology” could support. The code was compiled towards the end of Hammurabi`s reign. [36] This was partly inferred from the list of his accomplishments in the prologue. [37] Although earlier Babylonian codes are known, the most perfect monument of Babylonian law is undoubtedly the Code of Hammurabi.

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